Philosophy

Philosophy

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Questions on Descartes’ Meditations

Read the First and the Second Meditation from Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy and respond to the following questions. Paste your answers in the submission box, or enclose it in an attachment.

1) Why did Descartes set out to overthrow all his beliefs?

2) Why did Descartes believe it was not possible for him to examine all his beliefs one by one? Which alternative strategy did he suggest?

3) Which way of knowing has Descartes accepted as supremely true so far?

4) Did Descartes conclude that we should or that we should not trust our senses?

5) Did Descartes believe we have reliable signs to distinguish state of being awake from the state of being asleep?

6) According to Descartes, what elements of reality are our dreams made of?

7) Did Descartes eventually conclude that dreams can make up reality which would be completely different from our conscious experience?

8) Which elements of reality are the most universal?

9) Why did Descartes think arithmetic and geometry might be more certain and indubitable than other sciences, like physics, astronomy, and medicine?

10) Did Descartes believe we could be deceived in our judgements concerning mathematics?

11) Could God, who is all-good and all-powerful, allow us to be deceived in our judgements about reality?

12) What reason did Descartes have to believe that human beings are not perfect? What reason did he have to believe that God might not be perfect?

13)Which strategy did Descartes believe we should use in order to avoid any false judgements in the future?

14) Why did Descartes believe it would be useful to suppose that all our previous beliefs were false and imaginary?

15) Did Descartes believe in the existence of an evil demon?

16) Did Descartes, by the end of the 1. Meditation, conclude that we did not have a body?

17)Why did Descartes believe it was difficult for us to withhold assent from what we believe in our ordinary life?

PLEASE ANSWERS THE QUESTIONS PER NUMBER. THANK YOU.

ADDITIONAL READING:
Descartes’ Meditations

MEDITATION I.

OF THE THINGS OF WHICH WE MAY DOUBT.

1. SEVERAL years have now elapsed since I first became aware that I had accepted, even from my youth, many false opinions for true, and that consequently what I afterward based on such principles was highly doubtful; and from that time I was convinced of the necessity of undertaking once in my life to rid myself of all the opinions I had adopted, and of commencing anew the work of building from the foundation, if I desired to establish a firm and abiding superstructure in the sciences. But as this enterprise appeared to me to be one of great magnitude, I waited until I had attained an age so mature as to leave me no hope that at any stage of life more advanced I should be better able to execute my design. On this account, I have delayed so long that I should henceforth consider I was doing wrong were I still to consume in deliberation any of the time that now remains for action. To-day, then, since I have opportunely freed my mind from all cares [and am happily disturbed by no passions], and since I am in the secure possession of leisure in a peaceable retirement, I will at length apply myself earnestly and freely to the general overthrow of all my former opinions.[ L][ F]

2. But, to this end, it will not be necessary for me to show that the whole of these are false–a point, perhaps, which I shall never reach; but as even now my reason convinces me that I ought not the less carefully to withhold belief from what is not entirely certain and indubitable, than from what is manifestly false, it will be sufficient to justify the rejection of the whole if I shall find in each some ground for doubt. Nor for this purpose will it be necessary even to deal with each belief individually, which would be truly an endless labor; but, as the removal from below of the foundation necessarily involves the downfall of the whole edifice, I will at once approach the criticism of the principles on which all my former beliefs rested.[ L][ F]

3. All that I have, up to this moment, accepted as possessed of the highest truth and certainty, I received either from or through the senses. I observed, however, that these sometimes misled us; and it is the part of prudence not to place absolute confidence in that by which we have even once been deceived.[ L][ F]

4. But it may be said, perhaps, that, although the senses occasionally mislead us respecting minute objects, and such as are so far removed from us as to be beyond the reach of close observation, there are yet many other of their informations (presentations), of the truth of which it is manifestly impossible to doubt; as for example, that I am in this place, seated by the fire, clothed in a winter dressing gown, that I hold in my hands this piece of paper, with other intimations of the same nature. But how could I deny that I possess these hands and this body, and withal escape being classed with persons in a state of insanity, whose brains are so disordered and clouded by dark bilious vapors as to cause them pertinaciously to assert that they are monarchs when they are in the greatest poverty; or clothed [in gold] and purple when destitute of any covering; or that their head is made of clay, their body of glass, or that they are gourds? I should certainly be not less insane than they, were I to regulate my procedure according to examples so extravagant.[ L][ F]

5. Though this be true, I must nevertheless here consider that I am a man, and that, consequently, I am in the habit of sleeping, and representing to myself in dreams those same things, or even sometimes others less probable, which the insane think are presented to them in their waking moments. How often have I dreamt that I was in these familiar circumstances, that I was dressed, and occupied this place by the fire, when I was lying undressed in bed? At the present moment, however, I certainly look upon this paper with eyes wide awake; the head which I now move is not asleep; I extend this hand consciously and with express purpose, and I perceive it; the occurrences in sleep are not so distinct as all this. But I cannot forget that, at other times I have been deceived in sleep by similar illusions; and, attentively considering those cases, I perceive so clearly that there exist no certain marks by which the state of waking can ever be distinguished from sleep, that I feel greatly astonished; and in amazement I almost persuade myself that I am now dreaming.[ L][ F]

6. Let us suppose, then, that we are dreaming, and that all these particulars–namely, the opening of the eyes, the motion of the head, the forth- putting of the hands–are merely illusions; and even that we really possess neither an entire body nor hands such as we see. Nevertheless it must be admitted at least that the objects which appear to us in sleep are, as it were, painted representations which could not have been formed unless in the likeness of realities; and, therefore, that those general objects, at all events, namely, eyes, a head, hands, and an entire body, are not simply imaginary, but really existent. For, in truth, painters themselves, even when they study to represent sirens and satyrs by forms the most fantastic and extraordinary, cannot bestow upon them natures absolutely new, but can only make a certain medley of the members of different animals; or if they chance to imagine something so novel that nothing at all similar has ever been seen before, and such as is, therefore, purely fictitious and absolutely false, it is at least certain that the colors of which this is composed are real. And on the same principle, although these general objects, viz. [a body], eyes, a head, hands, and the like, be imaginary, we are nevertheless absolutely necessitated to admit the reality at least of some other objects still more simple and universal than these, of which, just as of certain real colors, all those images of things, whether true and real, or false and fantastic, that are found in our consciousness (cogitatio),are formed.[ L][ F]

7. To this class of objects seem to belong corporeal nature in general and its extension; the figure of extended things, their quantity or magnitude, and their number, as also the place in, and the time during, which they exist, and other things of the same sort.[ L][ F]

8. We will not, therefore, perhaps reason illegitimately if we conclude from this that Physics, Astronomy, Medicine, and all the other sciences that have for their end the consideration of composite objects, are indeed of a doubtful character; but that Arithmetic, Geometry, and the other sciences of the same class, which regard merely the simplest and most general objects, and scarcely inquire whether or not these are really existent, contain somewhat that is certain and indubitable: for whether I am awake or dreaming, it remains true that two and three make five, and that a square has but four sides; nor does it seem possible that truths so apparent can ever fall under a suspicion of falsity [or incertitude].[ L][ F]

9. Nevertheless, the belief that there is a God who is all powerful, and who created me, such as I am, has, for a long time, obtained steady possession of my mind. How, then, do I know that he has not arranged that there should be neither earth, nor sky, nor any extended thing, nor figure, nor magnitude, nor place, providing at the same time, however, for [the rise in me of the perceptions of all these objects, and] the persuasion that these do not exist otherwise than as I perceive them ? And further, as I sometimes think that others are in error respecting matters of which they believe themselves to possess a perfect knowledge, how do I know that I am not also deceived each time I add together two and three, or number the sides of a square, or form some judgment still more simple, if more simple indeed can be imagined? But perhaps Deity has not been willing that I should be thus deceived, for he is said to be supremely good. If, however, it were repugnant to the goodness of Deity to have created me subject to constant deception, it would seem likewise to be contrary to his goodness to allow me to be occasionally deceived; and yet it is clear that this is permitted.[ L][ F]

10. Some, indeed, might perhaps be found who would be disposed rather to deny the existence of a Being so powerful than to believe that there is nothing certain. But let us for the present refrain from opposing this opinion, and grant that all which is here said of a Deity is fabulous: nevertheless, in whatever way it be supposed that I reach the state in which I exist, whether by fate, or chance, or by an endless series of antecedents and consequents, or by any other means, it is clear (since to be deceived and to err is a certain defect ) that the probability of my being so imperfect as to be the constant victim of deception, will be increased exactly in proportion as the power possessed by the cause, to which they assign my origin, is lessened. To these reasonings I have assuredly nothing to reply, but am constrained at last to avow that there is nothing of all that I formerly believed to be true of which it is impossible to doubt, and that not through thoughtlessness or levity, but from cogent and maturely considered reasons; so that henceforward, if I desire to discover anything certain, I ought not the less carefully to refrain from assenting to those same opinions than to what might be shown to be manifestly false.[ L][ F]

11. But it is not sufficient to have made these observations; care must be taken likewise to keep them in remembrance. For those old and customary opinions perpetually recur– long and familiar usage giving them the right of occupying my mind, even almost against my will, and subduing my belief; nor will I lose the habit of deferring to them and confiding in them so long as I shall consider them to be what in truth they are, viz, opinions to some extent doubtful, as I have already shown, but still highly probable, and such as it is much more reasonable to believe than deny. It is for this reason I am persuaded that I shall not be doing wrong, if, taking an opposite judgment of deliberate design, I become my own deceiver, by supposing, for a time, that all those opinions are entirely false and imaginary, until at length, having thus balanced my old by my new prejudices, my judgment shall no longer be turned aside by perverted usage from the path that may conduct to the perception of truth. For I am assured that, meanwhile, there will arise neither peril nor error from this course, and that I cannot for the present yield too much to distrust, since the end I now seek is not action but knowledge.[ L][ F]

12. I will suppose, then, not that Deity, who is sovereignly good and the fountain of truth, but that some malignant demon, who is at once exceedingly potent and deceitful, has employed all his artifice to deceive me; I will suppose that the sky, the air, the earth, colors, figures, sounds, and all external things, are nothing better than the illusions of dreams, by means of which this being has laid snares for my credulity; I will consider myself as without hands, eyes, flesh, blood, or any of the senses, and as falsely believing that I am possessed of these; I will continue resolutely fixed in this belief, and if indeed by this means it be not in my power to arrive at the knowledge of truth, I shall at least do what is in my power, viz, [ suspend my judgment ], and guard with settled purpose against giving my assent to what is false, and being imposed upon by this deceiver, whatever be his power and artifice. But this undertaking is arduous, and a certain indolence insensibly leads me back to my ordinary co

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Three important sub-disciplines of philosophy are addressed in this course: ethics, epistemology, and religion. For this paper, you will develop an argument that includes your own view on one specific topic relating to one of these sub-disciplines. Below is a list of topics from which you must choose. Feel free to combine topics that seem to fit with one another. It is recommended that you choose a topic that interests you or that you have thought about previously.

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The Titanic OR The Love Canal OR BP Deepwater Horizon Spill OR Fukushima Reactor Meltdown OR Wikileaks(Julian Assange)
Project description
a. Explain theory that you will use for the case you choose.
b. Use ONLY one of the following: Khan, utilitarianism by Mill, Aristotle virtue,existentialism.
c. Consider objections or weakness of the theory you choose.
d. Write on the topics you choose using the theory.

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1.(a) Lay out and explain the central features of political disagreements,according to Huemer. (b) Lay out and explain the theories that Huemer thinks do notexplain the features and existence of political disagreementsand very brieflyexplain why he thinks each of these theories failsto explain the features of political disagreements. (c) Lay out and explain Huemer’s concept of rational irrationality. (d) According to Huemer, when engaging in argumentation with another person, we should never hope to convert them to our position. Explain why he thinks this and what he suggests our goal should be instead.
2.(a) Lay out and explain Singer’s consequence-based argument for the conclusion that we are required to treat animals much better than we currently treat them. (b) Lay out and explain Regan’s criticism of utilitarian moral theories (like Singer’s) specifically as they apply to animal ethics. (c) Lay out and explain Regan’s rights-based argument for the conclusion that we are required to treat animals much better than we currently treat them.(d) Lay out and explain Frey’s criticism of Regan’s claim that animalsare experiencing subjects of a life.
3.(a) Lay out and explain Feinberg’s offense principle. (b) Lay out and explain the two-sided notion of a right to privacythat is operative in Feinberg’s article. (c) Explain why Feinberg thinks a right to privacy entails the permissibility of nuisance laws. (d) Explain why Feinberg thinks nuisance laws and the offense principle are similar to one another, and further why he thinks a right to privacy entails the truth of the offense principle.
4.(a) Explain the competing interests that come into play in claims of hate speech on college and university campuses, according to Meyers. (b) Why, according to Myers, can’t we simply conclude that one set of interests outweighs the otherin claims of hate speech on college and university campuses,and what, instead, is her solution? (c) According to Peard, why would Meyers’s proposal lead to disastrous consequences regarding speech on college and university campuses? (d) According to Peard, why mightMeyers’s proposal actually be immoral
5.(a) Lay out and explain the definition of punishmentaccording to Barnett. (b) Lay out and explain two of the potential consequentialistic justifications Barnett provides in favor of punishment, and then brieflyexplain what Barnett thinks is wrong with these justifications. (c) Lay out and explain apotential deontological (duty-based) justification Barnett provides in favor of punishment, and then brieflyexplain what Barnett thinks is wrong with this justification. (d) Miller claims that Barnett’s restitution-based solution to criminal activity leaves us with no recourse when it comes to specificsorts of crimes. Lay out these sorts of crimes and explain why Miller thinks thatBarnett’s restitution-based solution to criminal activityis problematic in these cases.

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In this essay your task is to analyse a case study of evil using the relevant
concepts introduced in the course and making use of the appropriate
course readings. In each of the cases there are linked resources for getting acquainted with the case details.
Essay question
2. Evil and Responsibility: Robert Alton Harris Read the case of Robert Alton Harris as detailed in Gary Watson’s paper
Evil and the Limits of Evil (see Additional Readings Week 12) and in the following links.

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Prepare: In preparation for discussing the importance of critical thinking skills, please read Chapters 1 through 3 of Think Smarter: Critical Thinking to Improve Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills, as well as the following articles: “Critical Thinking and the Challenges of Internet,” “Common Misconceptions of Critical Thinking.” Found at: http://www.communicationtoday.sk/critical-thinking-and-the-challenges-of-internet/

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PHL 210- Intro to Philosophy Paper 1- Fall 2015
PAPER 1- Pick from ONE of the questions below and answer in essay form.
TO GET PROPER CREDIT YOU MUST:
1. Name your file: Paper One Last Name, i.e. Paper One Jones
2. Put your name on the actual document you are submitting.
3. Write out and answer the question. Check all spelling and grammar in MLA format.
4. Cite all sources, direct quotes or indirect ideas using elliptic giving author AND page numbers, i.e. (Soccio 26). Failure here could result in a 0%!
5. Include a Works Cited page at the end.
6. Make sure you submit the work in Turn It In in a single Word document in doc. or docx. orrichtext format.
7. Your essay is to be between 1000-1600 words. Extensive quotes (more than 20%) do not count toward this. If you cannot answer a question in these parameters, use another question. Minimum word count DOES NOT insure an excellent grade. Questions and Works Cited do not count towards the word count. You may not use Wikipedia as a source, nor recycle a previous paper from another class.
Chapter INTRO

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1. Does Williams succeed in establishing the importance of the body for personal identity? =700 words
2. Is Cohen’s substitution of self-ownership rights by a concern for autonomy persuasive? =700 words
3. Examine the claim that someone who has murdered two people should be punished twice as much as someone who has murdered one person, with

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1. How would you explain Dualism to Aristotle? Do you think you could persuade Aristotle that Dualism is a better theory than his? What do you think is the most important difference between Dualism and Aristotle’s Hylemorphic theory?
2. What point(s) is Descartes making with his example of the piece of wax in the Second Meditation? How does this support his Dualism theory? What is he saying about the nature of reality and of how we gain knowledge of the world and what we can know? What does Descartes’s understanding of the physical world have in common with that of Galileo?
3. Explain the role of God in Descartes’s philosophy? What is the relation between God and the mind and between God and the world? How is Descartes able to be certain that God exists? How is he able to be certain of anything?
4. Explain the role of God in Descartes’s philosophy? What is the relation between God and the mind and between God and the world? How is Descartes able to be certain that God exists? How is he able to be certain of anything?
5. What is the significance of “I think, therefore I am” in Descartes’s philosophy? How does he use it with his geometrical method?
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Q1.
The only part of Hegel’s vast output that we are examining is his basic system of thesis–antithesis–synthesis. It has a built-in bias towards the “progression” of history toward better and better results. Do you think Hegel gives an accurate description of how history unfolds? Can anything be done to improve change over time?

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Martin distinguishes between the metaphysical and the epistemological notion of necessary truths. Present the two notions, the background theory against which they are proposed by Quine and Kripke, and defend one of the two, the best way you know. Do you agree with Martin on the terminology he uses to distinguish between the two approaches to necessary truths? More importantly, what implications do you think the view you defended has for a reply to skepticism, e.g., about our knowledge of the external world, or about knowledge of other minds?
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Discuss how the world of chaos and disorder becomes the world of order and harmony in the universe of
the pre-Socratic, Milesian thinkers. In doing so, briefly discuss (in one or two paragraphs) the ideas of the
likes of Thales, Parmenides, Pythagoras, Zeno, Democritus, Anaximander and Anaxagoras in order to
support and arrive at the conclusion of your essay.

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These guidelines hold for all papers prepared for this course.
1. Font must be no smaller than 12 point, and the paper should be double-spaced, with at least 1″ margins all around..
2. Keep a personal copy of any paper you submit.
3. The papers in this class are not research papers. If you do, however, make any use of the work of others in preparing

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In his essay �The Matrix as Metaphysics,� David Chalmers argues against the matrix as a skeptical hypothesis by arguing instead that it is merely a metaphysical hypothesis. Critically evaluate some aspect of Chalmers� essay. To what extent is his response a successful response to skeptical worries?
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Choose a single article from the options listed below.
Write a paper that (1) identifies the main argument of the chosen article, (2) outlines key reasons the author offers in support, and (3) states key considerations the author identifies that would seem to disfavor the author’s position as well as (4) offer the author’s response to those considerations. The main task is to extract the reasons in support of the author’s position and not simply summarize the article.
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[QUESTION: How do marketing communication strategies of not-for-profits fighting against poverty influence the public’s perception of the organization?
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1. Compare and contrast Aquinas’ Contingency Argument, Anselm’s Ontological Argument and Descartes’ argument for the existence of God. Logically, what do these arguments have in common?
2. Survey Hume’s critiques of causation and induction. Use them to argue for or against Locke’s empiricism, limiting it to the four arguments for the existence of external objects and the theories of perception they imply.
3. Survey dualism, the identity theory and functionalism. Argue in defense of one, then explain how it leads you to accept one of our textbook’s theories about free agency.

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#1. Compare Homer and Hesiod, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective mythologies.
#2. Compare Mythology and Nature Philosophy, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking.
#3. Compare Thales and Anaximander, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking.
#4. Compare Xenophanes and Mythology, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking.
#5. Compare Heraclitus and Parmenides, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking.
#6. Compare Parmenides and Atomism, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking. Group B #1. Compare Nature Philosophy and Sophistry, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking.
#2. Compare Sophistry and Socrates, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking.
#3. Compare Socrates and Plato, highlighting relevant similarities and differences in their respective ways of thinking.

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1. Explain Kant’s critical response to Hume in the section of the Critique of Practical Reason entitled “On the Warrant of Pure Reason in its Practical Use to an Extension which is not Possible to it in its Speculative Use” (pp. 44-50 of the Cambridge edition). In your view, should Hume have been persuaded by Kant’s arguments? Why or why not?

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Case study:
Robert Jones, a college student, was in a terrible car accident returning from spring break. He has been diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state for the past six years. Although Robert’s brain stem is still functioning, his heart is beating and he can breathe spontaneously, he is dependent on a feeding tube providing food and water to stay alive.
His doctors have come to the conclusion that Robert’s life is no longer of value to him and have requested that they be allowed to withdraw his food supply. It is legal for doctors to withdraw medical support, because feeding a patient is regarded as palliative care and not medical treatment.
Robert’s parents have taken the case to court in order to prevent his doctors from withdrawing his feeding tubes.
Your analysis:
You will need to look at this case from the perspective of deontological, utilitarian, and virtue ethics and justify your conclusions. You should write one paragraph supporting both the physicians’ and parents’ positions using each of the three ethical theories, for six paragraphs. This can be done for both sides of the argument by changing the principles invoked by each theory or changing how they are applied. Lastly, write one paragraph explaining what you think would be the best approach and why.
Here are some hints—Utilitarian perspective: pleasure/pain calculation Deontology: which principles are involved? Virtue Ethics: who knows better, who can make better decision, what a loyal, good person would do

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F. Locke: Probability (Essay IV.xv.1-5; xvi.1, 3-14)
11. A triangle in Euclidean plane geometry has an angle sum of 180 degrees. Either demonstrate this to me, or tell me why you believe that this is the case. In answering this question, explain to the difference between what Locke calls “demonstration” and “probability.”

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think about the material. Ponder what the author’s intent is in writing the assigned pieces. Did he or she succeed? Is the author persuasive? What would it mean if the author is right or wrong? What other arguments are compatible or incompatible with the author’s stance? Long baths, showers, walks, or aimless metro rides are perfect situations for contemplationAs to citation, though the Chicago Manual of Style is the preferred guidebook for philosophical writing, any scholarly format is acceptable, provided it is consistent throughout the assignment. All quotes and ideas taken from sources other than the student’s mind are to be scrupulously cited to avoid plagiarism and cheating. It is cheating to consult other sources to supplement your understanding of the reading. Part of the work of philosophy is interpreting the text, so students who look to other sources for guidance on interpretation inevitably adulterate their own views of the material.Generally speaking, philosophical writing is argumentative, in that it states a clear position the author means to defend at the beginning, and spends the rest of the paper proving the thesis. Great papers are equal parts textual evidence and author opinion. Students should refer to the texts and quote them throughout the paper. On the basis of the text, students should then assert their own voices, offering an interpretation or answer to a prompt that goes beyond mere summary of the reading(s) at hand. The most common types of poorly-written papers have unclear theses, over-cite the text, or devolve into unproven speculation. • Response Papers -1-2 pages in length, due at the beginning of a class. Students will select a short passage from the text that is especially fascinating, troubling, or important, and analyze it in the paper. Numerous techniques may be used to assess the passage: students might contextualize the passage within the work as awhole; they might show ways in which the passage opens up new avenues of thought; they might show how the passage throws the entire work into question; or they might try to make a confusing passage clear through their analysis. Students should offer both an interpretation of the text and some creative thought on it.

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1. Consider the medical criteria that have been offered for death. What are the merits and limitations of these definitions for understanding death?
2. Should we regard patients in a permanent vegetative state as alive or dead? What might these cases tell us about the difference between being a person and being a human being?
3. What difference might religious beliefs make for our understanding of what death is and why it matters?
4. Is death a harm? If so, how can a person both be harmed and yet not exist?
5. Discuss and evaluate Epicurus’ view on death.
6. Would immortality be better than mortality? Discuss with reference to Williams.
7. Why is killing morally impermissible?
8. What difference does knowing we are going to die make to the way we should live our lives?
9. Is abortion morally permissible? Explain your answer with reference to Joyce and Thompson.
10. Is euthanasia morally permissible? If so, under what conditions?
11. Is there a moral distinction between active and passive euthanasia? Answer with reference to Steinbock and Rachels.

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See the film “Girl Rising,” This is a film about the journeys of young women around the globe. They are witnesses to the strength of the human spirt and the power of education. Read about Mary Wollstonecraft Read her sixth chapter of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, pp. 900-904 from the book “From Plato to Derrida” sixth addition by Forrest E. Baird. In a one page assignment discuss how the film, “Girl Rising,” demonstrated Mary Woolstone’s ideas expressed in chapter six of A Vindication of the Rights of Women

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Philosophy
Essay Topics
Directions: Please choose only one of the following topics for your critical essay. The essay should be at least 5-8 pages double spaced word processed in MLA style. You may use up to 12 point font. The due date is printed on the syllabus. Please use at least two outside sources and one from either text. There is a sample critical paper on line for you to view.
These topics are from the introduction – Chapter 1 page 1- 15 in the text
1. How would you explain what the study of philosophy is to someone who does not already know what it is?
2. Make the case that our culture is suffering from a kind of philosophical illiteracy. Please be specific. Cite examples and identify patterns.

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Philosophy
The question asks for you to take a stance on one of the applied issues we have studied in class. The questions are open enough to allow for a range of responses. Your answer need not reflect every detail we have studied, but it should be detailed enough to show that you both understand the key concepts involved and that you have engaged intellectually with the issues discussed in class. Additionally, your response should be sensitive to any major objections or conflicting positions (Consider opposing views voiced in class, for example.). There is one core component that I would ask each of you to include in your responses. Consider one of the two moral frameworks we have studied in class: Kantianism or Utilitarianism (Choose between the expected utility and actual utility variants). How would an adherent of that framework answer the question? What, if anything, do you find compelling or worrisome about each framework’s response? You may find it helpful to develop your own response as a way of handling what you find compelling or worrisome about the moral framework you choose. Alternatively, you may want to position the verdicts of each moral framework as the major rivals to your own view. Your paper should discuss any relevant principles from the NSPE code of ethics (other professional engineering ethical codes may be substituted as appropriate). Additionally, your response should be sensitive to any major objections or conflicting positions (Consider opposing views voiced in class, for example.).
Consider the following case from Martin and Schinzinger’s Ethics in Engineering:
In 1977, Virginia Edgerton was senior information scientist on a project for New York City’s Criminal Justice Coordinating Council. The project was to develop a computer system for use by the New York district attorneys in keeping track of data about court cases. It was to be added to another computer system, already in operation, which dispatched police calls in response to emergency calls. Ms. Edgerton, who had 13 years of data processing experience, judged that adding in to the new system might result in overloading the existing system in such a way that the response time for dispatching emergency vehicles might increase. Because it might risk lives to test the system in operation, she recommended that a study be conducted ahead of time to estimate the likelihood of such an overload.
She made this recommendation to her immediate supervisor, the project director, who refused to follow it. She then sought advice from the IEEE, of which she was a member. The Institute’s working Group on Ethics and Employment Practice referred her to the manager of systems programming at Columbia University’s computer center, who verified that she was raising a legitimate issue.
Next she wrote a formal memo to her immediate supervisor, again requesting the study. When her request was rejected, she sent a revised version of the memo to New York’s
Criminal Justice Steering Committee, a part of the organization for which she worked. In doing so, she violated the project director’s orders that all communications to the steering committee be approved by him in advance. The project director promptly fired her for insubordination. Later he stated: “It is … imperative that an employee who is in a highly professional capacity , and has exposure that accompanies a position dealing with top level policy makers, follow expressly given orders and adhere to established policy.” (179)
Question: In your view, were Ms. Edgerton’s actions permissible, superogatory, obligatory, or
prohibited?

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Philosophy
Phil.Unit2-Instructions
(Solomon,Higgins: Chapters: 1,4,11) The Big Questions: A Short Introduction to Philosophy
3-4 pages, 2-3 paragraphs for each of the 6 terms.
There are certain big questions that philosophers have been puzzling over for millennia. Amazingly, many people ask these same questions in daily life. Reflect on the questions related to each of the six branches of philosophy below. Then, write 2–3 paragraphs describing a time in your life when you have asked similar questions. Talk about the specific circumstances that brought you to each question, and what conclusions you came to. The questions are as follows:
1. Metaphysics:
o What is real?
o Is the physical world more or less real than the spiritual or psychological world?
o Is there such a thing as a soul? And if so, how does it survive outside of a physical body?
o Do all people have free will, or are lives determined by fate?
2. Epistemology:
o How is anything known?
o What is the basis for knowledge? Is it innate reason, experience, or something else?
o Is all knowledge subjective, or are there some universal truths?
o What is the relationship between faith and reason?
o What can artificial intelligence teach people about knowledge?
o What are the limits of human understanding?
3. Ethics:
o What is the right thing to do?
o What does it mean to be a good person?
o Does virtue lead to happiness?
o Do the ends justify the means, or is a virtuous action virtuous in and of itself?
o How does living in a society affect morality?
o Is morality culturally based, individually based, or is there a universal morality?
4. Aesthetics:
o What is beautiful?
o Is beauty truly in the eye of the beholder, or are there some things that all cultures find beautiful?
o What is the purpose of art?
o How can a piece of art be successful or valuable? Does beauty matter?
5. Political philosophy:
o What is the best kind of government?
o How much power should the government have?
o What kind of people should be in power?
o How involved should the common citizen be in government?
6. Social philosophy:
o How should humans behave in a society?
o Do people give up certain rights when they choose to live in a society?
o How do social values affect individual beliefs? Do people behave differently in a crowd than they would individually?
o How does society affect language and other types of communication?
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Philosophy
Sensory Perception
Project description
1)Provide at least three(3) reason for believing in the accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information.
2)Identify and describe at least three(3)factors contributing to the accuracy or inaccuracy of data sensory data.
3)Discuss the roles of “nature and nurture” with regard to the interpretation and evaluation of sensory data.
4)Use at least (2) quality resources for this assignment. My textbook(from Strayer University “Thinking”)can count as (1) source. At least one(1) source must be obtained from the collection of databases accessible form the Learning Resources Center (ProQuest, JSTOR,or Goggle Scholar)
5)Typed double spaced, using New Times Roman font size (12) with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA.
6)Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, My name, the Professors name(Dr. Miller), the course title “Critical Thinking-PHI210″,and the date of 17 October 2013.
7)Write clearly and concisely about issues in critical thinking using proper writing mechanics.
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philosophy
Paper instructions:
1400-1600(words maximum) , MLA citation, unlimited citations from the course readings (which are sent , not the lectures) , and maximum of 2 external citations (one of them must be non-internet, or at least scholarly journal), no citations from wikipedia and sparksnotes, also acceptable to write in first person

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Philosophy
A minimum 700 word essay comparing and contrasting three writings about skepticism and knowledge from three different time periods. From the ancient period you will read a very famous story by Plato called “The Cave Analogy.” From the beginning of the modern period, you will read Rene Descartes’ “Evil Demon Hypothesis.” Finally from very recent contemporary times you will read a synopsis of the motion picture “The Matrix.” (NOTE: You are welcome to view this movie if you desire. However, please note that the movie is rated R for language and violence. You do not need to view the movie in order to fulfill this assignment. The synopsis covers the main idea of the movie for our purposes.) Your essay is to discuss the similarities and differences between these three different presentations in relation to what you have learned about skepticism and epistemology. There are specific questions you need to address in your essay. Please note that you do not need a title page or a table of contents. Also, make sure that you do not summarize the movie or articles. I am interested in seeing you apply the material to making an argument than in summarizing their content. While you are free to quote from sources, quotations will not count towards the minimum word count. Plagiarism of any kind will result in a 0 for the assignment and may result in being dropped from the course.
A word about the readings: The first reading is a synopsis of The Matrix. You may have seen the movie and so this would function as a review for you. If you haven’t seen the movie, you may choose to do so. However, you should know that the movie is rated R for language and violence. It is not necessary to view the movie to fulfill the assignment as the synopsis is enough to consider the questions. The second reading comes from Plato’s classic work, The Republic. It is in the form of a dialogue between Socrates and Glaucon, a brother of Plato, and contains the famous cave allegory. The final reading is a section from Meditation I from Meditations on First Philosophy by Rene Descartes who offers some reasons to doubt his senses.
Questions to consider:
1. Compare and contrast The Matrix with the readings from Plato and Descartes. What are some similarities and differences?
2. Can we prove the world we are experiencing is real? How do we know we are not dreaming, living in a Platonic cave, or trapped in some sort of matrix?
3. At the end of the cave allegory, Socrates implies that most men would want to escape the cave and see reality as it really is. However, in his betrayal of Morpheus, Cypher implies that it is better to live in the artificial world of the Matrix. Which is better: the harshness of reality or the “ignorance is bliss” of illusion? Defend your answer.
4. Since much of our knowledge is based on sense experience, and since our senses are imperfect and can be deceived, can we ever be certain that our beliefs are true? Defend or explain your answer.

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Philosophy
A minimum 700 word essay comparing and contrasting three writings about skepticism and knowledge from three different time periods. From the ancient period you will read a very famous story by Plato called “The Cave Analogy.” From the beginning of the modern period, you will read Rene Descartes’ “Evil Demon Hypothesis.” Finally from very recent contemporary times you will read a synopsis of the motion picture “The Matrix.” (NOTE: You are welcome to view this movie if you desire. However, please note that the movie is rated R for language and violence. You do not need to view the movie in order to fulfill this assignment. The synopsis covers the main idea of the movie for our purposes.) Your essay is to discuss the similarities and differences between these three different presentations in relation to what you have learned about skepticism and epistemology. There are specific questions you need to address in your essay. Please note that you do not need a title page or a table of contents. Also, make sure that you do not summarize the movie or articles. I am interested in seeing you apply the material to making an argument than in summarizing their content. While you are free to quote from sources, quotations will not count towards the minimum word count. Plagiarism of any kind will result in a 0 for the assignment and may result in being dropped from the course.
A word about the readings: The first reading is a synopsis of The Matrix. You may have seen the movie and so this would function as a review for you. If you haven’t seen the movie, you may choose to do so. However, you should know that the movie is rated R for language and violence. It is not necessary to view the movie to fulfill the assignment as the synopsis is enough to consider the questions. The second reading comes from Plato’s classic work, The Republic. It is in the form of a dialogue between Socrates and Glaucon, a brother of Plato, and contains the famous cave allegory. The final reading is a section from Meditation I from Meditations on First Philosophy by Rene Descartes who offers some reasons to doubt his senses.
Questions to consider:
1. Compare and contrast The Matrix with the readings from Plato and Descartes. What are some similarities and differences?
2. Can we prove the world we are experiencing is real? How do we know we are not dreaming, living in a Platonic cave, or trapped in some sort of matrix?
3. At the end of the cave allegory, Socrates implies that most men would want to escape the cave and see reality as it really is. However, in his betrayal of Morpheus, Cypher implies that it is better to live in the artificial world of the Matrix. Which is better: the harshness of reality or the “ignorance is bliss” of illusion? Defend your answer.
4. Since much of our knowledge is based on sense experience, and since our senses are imperfect and can be deceived, can we ever be certain that our beliefs are true? Defend or explain your answer.

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Philosophy
Paper instructions:
Answers these four questions according to john hick’s the pluralistic hypothesis.
1.what the philosopher says they would accept as a report of a person’s having undergone a mystical experience
2. what the philosopher would say they looked at to measure the truth of a claim to have experienced a mystical experience
3.whether the philosopher would believe the claim of a person’s having undergone a mystical experience
4. why the philosopher feels as he (or she) does about mystical experience claims

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Philosophy
Paper instructions:
we do not have a perfect solution to the problems of the global ecology. We have examined all the current major philosophical approaches to environmental ethics and have not been able to find a clear, unambiguous ethical theory that we can use to guide us to make the right choices when confronted with complex environmental issues. Would you consider yourself optimistic, realistic, or pessimistic about our global environmental future? Why?

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Philosophy
1.Read book: In the textbook,
VII.B.3 534-549 (6th Ed.) “Rational Religious Belief Without Arguments” by Michael Bergmann, this discussion is on “Reformed Epistemology;”
VIII.B.3 612-620 (6th Ed) “An Evolutionary Argument against Naturalism” by Alvin Plantinga. Dr. Plantinga is perhaps the most distinguished philospher of religion alive today, and while teaching for many years at the University of Notre Dame, is a Reformed Christian.
Alternate readings from Bowker: pg 170-171 on the Reformation;
from Livingston, pg 217-227, 365-369 on Protestantism

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Philosophy
Famine affluence and morality
Paper details:
Read artice "famine, affluence, and morality". Explain singers goals and present his arguments in reation to this issue. Explain 3 counter argumentsto singers position he addresses in his article. Finally, present personal argument supporting singers position or against his position

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philosophy
The 1977 book Who Is Julia? tells the story of Julia North and Mary Frances Beaudine. Mary Frances has a 2-year-old son who runs out in front of traffic. Mary Frances is too far away to save him, and when she sees he is about to be killed, she has a brain hemorrhage and drops dead. Just before the streetcar is going to hit the child, however, Julia saves the child. She ends up getting hit, and her body is badly mangled. The ambulance takes both Julia and Mary Frances to the same hospital where a doctor has pioneered a new technique he calls a “body transplant.” He takes Julia’s brain and puts it into Mary Frances’s body. When the person wakes up, who is she?

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Marx discusses alienation from species-life. What does he mean? Do you think he is right? Explain make sure to include page numbers for all quotations and references. Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW

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Half page for each question, APA format and please provide references for each. Thank you   (1)In Plato’s Republic, Socrates says: As for one who is choosy about what he learns,…we shall not call him a lover of learning or a philosopher, just as we shall not say that a man who is difficult about his food is hungry or has an appetite for food. We shall call him a lover of food but a poor eater…But we shall call a philosopher the man who is easily willing to learn every kind of knowledge, gladly turns to learning things, and is insatiable in this respect. What are the connections here between the eating and the thinking?   (2)You’ve got to work out your body or else it atrophies. If you look at it that way, drinking alcohol is testing your body just as much as is running or lifting weights. If I want to keep my lungs in good shape, I should run every day, so if I want to keep my liver in good shape, I should drink every day. Where is the fault in this analogy?   (3)Provide an example of using person-centered care in communicating to another who disagrees with you.   (4)Explain how one of your past communications (oral, written, or electronic) was interpreted by another as being rude, insensitive, or threatening when you did not intend for it to be. Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW   

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Half page for each question, APA format and please provide references for each. Thank you   (1)In Plato’s Republic, Socrates says: As for one who is choosy about what he learns,…we shall not call him a lover of learning or a philosopher, just as we shall not say that a man who is difficult about his food is hungry or has an appetite for food. We shall call him a lover of food but a poor eater…But we shall call a philosopher the man who is easily willing to learn every kind of knowledge, gladly turns to learning things, and is insatiable in this respect. What are the connections here between the eating and the thinking?   (2)You’ve got to work out your body or else it atrophies. If you look at it that way, drinking alcohol is testing your body just as much as is running or lifting weights. If I want to keep my lungs in good shape, I should run every day, so if I want to keep my liver in good shape, I should drink every day. Where is the fault in this analogy?   (3)Provide an example of using person-centered care in communicating to another who disagrees with you.   (4)Explain how one of your past communications (oral, written, or electronic) was interpreted by another as being rude, insensitive, or threatening when you did not intend for it to be. Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW 

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Assignment 1.2: Conflicting Viewpoints Essay – Part II Synthesizing and Writing This a continuation of Assignment 1 Part II – Writing Write at three to four (3-4) page paper in which you: 1. State your position on the topic you selected for Assignment 1.1. 2. Identify (3) three premises (reasons) from the Procon.org website that support your position and explain why you selected these specific reasons. 3. Explain your answers to the “believing” questions about the three (3) premises opposing your position from the Procon.org website. 4. Examine at least two (2) types of biases that you likely experienced as you evaluated the premises for and against your position. 5. Discuss the effects of your own enculturation or group identification that may have influenced your biases. 6. Discuss whether or not your thinking about the topic has changed after playing the “Believing Game,” even if your position on the issue has stayed the same. The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing: • Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph. • Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences. • Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA Style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. You must follow these submission guidelines: • Submit the essay to Turnitin.com and then submit the originality report and final essay with any needed revisions to Blackboard. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: • Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals and abuses of language. • Create written work utilizing the concepts of critical thinking. • Use technology and information resources to research issues in critical thinking skills and informal logic. Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW 

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Suppose I say to you: “My belief that God exists is rational.” What do I mean when I say that?     Suppose I say to you: “My belief that God exists is true.” What do I mean when I say that?     Suppose I say to you: “My belief that God exists is irrational and true.” What do I mean when I say that?     Suppose I say to you: “My belief that God exists is rational and false.” What do I mean when I say that?     Provide a succinct and accurate definition of what the textbook calls a “biased” belief. (Provide a definition that fits with the other concepts in this exam.) Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW 

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Complete the Philosophical Assessment in Kauchak&Eggen: Chapter 5 (Examining Your Beliefs). Calculate your scores for the 4 philosophies. Determine which philosophy or combination of philosophies most closely aligns with your beliefs and use this philosophy for the purpose of writing your essay. After watching the “How to Writean Essay” presentation, write an essay of at least 650 words in response tothe following scenario:   You are an American History teacher, and you want your students to do more than simply memorize their way through the information you are teaching.You want them to develop their critical-thinking skills, learn to solve problems, make informed decisions, and get involved with lessons. This turns out to be a daunting task, however. The students seem to want you to describe every required detail in assignments; and when you call on students who don’t have their hands raised, the most common response is, “I didn’t have my hand up” or “I don’t know.” In other cases, they say, “C’mon, just tell us what you want us to know,” and “Why do we have to learn this stuff?”   Explain your philosophy of education (position statement) based on the Reading & Study. How would your philosophy impact your response to the situation? Include 3 pieces of evidence to support the use of your philosophy in practical teaching methods in your American History class. You must include an introductory paragraph, a body, and a concluding paragraph. Information on these items is provided in the “How to Write an Essay” presentation and the sample APA paper. See the attached grading rubric for further requirement details. Label the attachment with your first and last name along with the assignment title “Philosophy Essay” and submit as a Microsoft Word document. Current APA formatting required for this assignment includes a title page, running head, indented paragraphs, Times New Roman font in size 12, and proper citations for references used. Your essay must include 2 citations, one of which must come from the textbook. If an outside source is used, it must have been published within the last 5 years. Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW

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SEVERAL years have now elapsed since I first became aware that I had accepted, even from my youth, many false opinions for true, and that consequently what I afterward based on such principles was highly doubtful; and from that time I was convinced of the necessity of undertaking once in my life to rid myself of all the opinions I had adopted, and of commencing anew the work of building from the foundation, if I desired to establish a firm and abiding superstructure in the sciences. But as this enterprise appeared to me to be one of great magnitude, I waited until I had attained an age so mature as to leave me no hope that at any stage of life more advanced I should be better able to execute my design. On this account, I have delayed so long that I should henceforth consider I was doing wrong were I still to consume in deliberation any of the time that now remains for action. To-day, then, since I have opportunely freed my mind from all cares [and am happily disturbed by no passions], and since I am in the secure possession of leisure in a peaceable retirement, I will at length apply myself earnestly and freely to the general overthrow of all my former opinions. But, to this end, it will not be necessary for me to show that the whole of these are false–a point, perhaps, which I shall never reach; but as even now my reason convinces me that I ought not the less carefully to withhold belief from what is not entirely certain and indubitable, than from what is manifestly false, it will be sufficient to justify the rejection of the whole if I shall find in each some ground for doubt. Nor for this purpose will it be necessary even to deal with each belief individually, which would be truly an endless labor; but, as the removal from below of the foundation necessarily involves the downfall of the whole edifice, I will at once approach the criticism of the principles on which all my former beliefs rested. All that I have, up to this moment, accepted as possessed of the highest truth and certainty, I received either from or through the senses. I observed, however, that these sometimes misled us; and it is the part of prudence not to place absolute confidence in that by which we have even once been deceived. But it may be said, perhaps, that, although the senses occasionally mislead us respecting minute objects, and such as are so far removed from us as to be beyond the reach of close observation, there are yet many other of their informations (presentations), of the truth of which it is manifestly impossible to doubt; as for example, that I am in this place, seated by the fire, clothed in a winter dressing gown, that I hold in my hands this piece of paper, with other intimations of the same nature. But how could I deny that I possess these hands and this body, and withal escape being classed with persons in a state of insanity, whose brains are so disordered and clouded by dark bilious vapors as to cause them pertinaciously to assert that they are monarchs when they are in the greatest poverty; or clothed [in gold] and purple when destitute of any covering; or that their head is made of clay, their body of glass, or that they are gourds? I should certainly be not less insane than they, were I to regulate my procedure according to examples so extravagant. Though this be true, I must nevertheless here consider that I am a man, and that, consequently, I am in the habit of sleeping, and representing to myself in dreams those same things, or even sometimes others less probable, which the insane think are presented to them in their waking moments. How often have I dreamt that I was in these familiar circumstances, that I was dressed, and occupied this place by the fire, when I was lying undressed in bed? At the present moment, however, I certainly look upon this paper with eyes wide awake; the head which I now move is not asleep; I extend this hand consciously and with express purpose, and I perceive it; the occurrences in sleep are not so distinct as all this. But I cannot forget that, at other times I have been deceived in sleep by similar illusions; and, attentively considering those cases, I perceive so clearly that there exist no certain marks by which the state of waking can ever be distinguished from sleep, that I feel greatly astonished; and in amazement I almost persuade myself that I am now dreaming.[ Let us suppose, then, that we are dreaming, and that all these particulars–namely, the opening of the eyes, the motion of the head, the forth- putting of the hands–are merely illusions; and even that we really possess neither an entire body nor hands such as we see. Nevertheless it must be admitted at least that the objects which appear to us in sleep are, as it were, painted representations which could not have been formed unless in the likeness of realities; and, therefore, that those general objects, at all events, namely, eyes, a head, hands, and an entire body, are not simply imaginary, but really existent. For, in truth, painters themselves, even when they study to represent sirens and satyrs by forms the most fantastic and extraordinary, cannot bestow upon them natures absolutely new, but can only make a certain medley of the members of different animals; or if they chance to imagine something so novel that nothing at all similar has ever been seen before, and such as is, therefore, purely fictitious and absolutely false, it is at least certain that the colors of which this is composed are real. And on the same principle, although these general objects, viz. [a body], eyes, a head, hands, and the like, be imaginary, we are nevertheless absolutely necessitated to admit the reality at least of some other objects still more simple and universal than these, of which, just as of certain real colors, all those images of things, whether true and real, or false and fantastic, that are found in our consciousness (cogitatio),are formed. To this class of objects seem to belong corporeal nature in general and its extension; the figure of extended things, their quantity or magnitude, and their number, as also the place in, and the time during, which they exist, and other things of the same sort. We will not, therefore, perhaps reason illegitimately if we conclude from this that Physics, Astronomy, Medicine, and all the other sciences that have for their end the consideration of composite objects, are indeed of a doubtful character; but that Arithmetic, Geometry, and the other sciences of the same class, which regard merely the simplest and most general objects, and scarcely inquire whether or not these are really existent, contain somewhat that is certain and indubitable: for whether I am awake or dreaming, it remains true that two and three make five, and that a square has but four sides; nor does it seem possible that truths so apparent can ever fall under a suspicion of falsity [or incertitude]. Nevertheless, the belief that there is a God who is all powerful, and who created me, such as I am, has, for a long time, obtained steady possession of my mind. How, then, do I know that he has not arranged that there should be neither earth, nor sky, nor any extended thing, nor figure, nor magnitude, nor place, providing at the same time, however, for [the rise in me of the perceptions of all these objects, and] the persuasion that these do not exist otherwise than as I perceive them ? And further, as I sometimes think that others are in error respecting matters of which they believe themselves to possess a perfect knowledge, how do I know that I am not also deceived each time I add together two and three, or number the sides of a square, or form some judgment still more simple, if more simple indeed can be imagined? But perhaps Deity has not been willing that I should be thus deceived, for he is said to be supremely good. If, however, it were repugnant to the goodness of Deity to have created me subject to constant deception, it would seem likewise to be contrary to his goodness to allow me to be occasionally deceived; and yet it is clear that this is permitted. Some, indeed, might perhaps be found who would be disposed rather to deny the existence of a Being so powerful than to believe that there is nothing certain. But let us for the present refrain from opposing this opinion, and grant that all which is here said of a Deity is fabulous: nevertheless, in whatever way it be supposed that I reach the state in which I exist, whether by fate, or chance, or by an endless series of antecedents and consequents, or by any other means, it is clear (since to be deceived and to err is a certain defect ) that the probability of my being so imperfect as to be the constant victim of deception, will be increased exactly in proportion as the power possessed by the cause, to which they assign my origin, is lessened. To these reasonings I have assuredly nothing to reply, but am constrained at last to avow that there is nothing of all that I formerly believed to be true of which it is impossible to doubt, and that not through thoughtlessness or levity, but from cogent and maturely considered reasons; so that henceforward, if I desire to discover anything certain, I ought not the less carefully to refrain from assenting to those same opinions than to what might be shown to be manifestly false. But it is not sufficient to have made these observations; care must be taken likewise to keep them in remembrance. For those old and customary opinions perpetually recur– long and familiar usage giving them the right of occupying my mind, even almost against my will, and subduing my belief; nor will I lose the habit of deferring to them and confiding in them so long as I shall consider them to be what in truth they are, viz, opinions to some extent doubtful, as I have already shown, but still highly probable, and such as it is much more reasonable to believe than deny. It is for this reason I am persuaded that I shall not be doing wrong, if, taking an opposite judgment of deliberate design, I become my own deceiver, by supposing, for a time, that all those opinions are entirely false and imaginary, until at length, having thus balanced my old by my new prejudices, my judgment shall no longer be turned aside by perverted usage from the path that may conduct to the perception of truth. For I am assured that, meanwhile, there will arise neither peril nor error from this course, and that I cannot for the present yield too much to distrust, since the end I now seek is not action but knowledge. I will suppose, then, not that Deity, who is sovereignly good and the fountain of truth, but that some malignant demon, who is at once exceedingly potent and deceitful, has employed all his artifice to deceive me; I will suppose that the sky, the air, the earth, colors, figures, sounds, and all external things, are nothing better than the illusions of dreams, by means of which this being has laid snares for my credulity; I will consider myself as without hands, eyes, flesh, blood, or any of the senses, and as falsely believing that I am possessed of these; I will continue resolutely fixed in this belief, and if indeed by this means it be not in my power to arrive at the knowledge of truth, I shall at least do what is in my power, viz, [ suspend my judgment ], and guard with settled purpose against giving my assent to what is false, and being imposed upon by this deceiver, whatever be his power and artifice. But this undertaking is arduous, and a certain indolence insensibly leads me back to my ordinary course of life; and just as the captive, who, perchance, was enjoying in his dreams an imaginary liberty, when he begins to suspect that it is but a vision, dreads awakening, and conspires with the agreeable illusions that the deception may be prolonged; so I, of my own accord, fall back into the train of my former beliefs, and fear to arouse myself from my slumber, lest the time of laborious wakefulness that would succeed this quiet rest, in place of bringing any light of day, should prove inadequate to dispel the darkness that will arise from the difficulties that have now been raised. Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW

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[a]On January 1, 2014, Brittany Maynard was diagnosed with brain cancer. In April, she was given just six months to live. Brittany wanted to have the option of ending her own life with the help of her doctor before the cancer became unbearable. So, she moved to Oregon to take advantage of the state’s ‘Death with Dignity’ law. On November 1, 2014, surrounded by family members, Brittany ended her own life by ingesting drugs prescribed by her doctor.   Oregon is currently one of five states in which physician-assisted suicide is legal. In June of this year, physician-assisted suicide became legal in California (the fifth state).     Do you morally approve or disapprove of California’s decision to legalize physician-assisted suicide?   Your paper should carefully address the following questions:   What is physician-assisted suicide, and how does it differ from active and passive euthanasia? Would J. Gay-Williams approve of physician-assisted suicide? (Why/why not?) Would James Rachels approve of physician-assisted suicide? (Why/why not?) Do you approve of California’s decision to legalize physician-assisted suicide? (Why/why not?)   —————————————————————————————————————————-   [b] Brittany Maynard suffered immensely as a result of her brain cancer. And (presumably) she believed that death would bring an end to her suffering.     Do you believe that Brittany’s death (or being dead) is a bad thing for her?   Your paper should carefully address the following questions:   Would Stephen Rosenbaum&Epicurus believe that Brittany’s death was bad? (Why/why not?) Would Lucretius believe that Brittany’s death was bad? (Why/why not?) Would Tom Nagel believe that Brittany’s death was bad? (Why/why not?) Do you believe that Brittany’s death was bad? (Why/why not?)     Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW  

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I need 4 diffrenet pages the first page should include   1-Presuasion:   A- define preuasion in your own word:   B-Copy and paste an article explains how they used presuasion –THE ARTICLE MUST BE ABOUT RELIGION AND THINGS TO DO WITH RELGION– I also need the URL for the article THE ARTICLE MUST BE IN AUGUST or SEPTMEBER 2016 *don’t copy and paste the whole article just the main paragraph that we need*   C-Analyize the article: how did the author used presuasion in the article what words did he use ect.     the next page 2-Explanation A- define explanation in your own word:   B-Copy and paste an article explains expalnation –THE ARTICLE MUST BE ABOUT RELIGION AND THINGS TO DO WITH RELGION– I also need the URL for the article THE ARTICLE MUST BE IN AUGUST or SEPTMEBER 2016 *don’t copy and paste the whole article just the main paragraph that we need*   C-Analyize the article: how did the author used his explanation in the article what words did he use ect.   third page 3- discovery analysis SAME STEPS AS presuasion and expalnation a- b- c-     fourth page 4- recording inference SAME STEPS AS presuasion and expalnation a- b- c-   ALL THE ARTICLES MUST BE IN AUGUST OR SEPTMBER 2016 –THE ARTICLES MUST BE ABOUT RELIGION AND THINGS TO DO WITH RELGION DOESNT MATTER WHAT RELIGION AS LONG AS IT”S A RELIGION– I will also need every URL for all the articles   Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW

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Your assignment is to read McCloskey’sshort article found in the Reading & Study folder in Module/Week 7 and respond to each of the questions below. Your instructor is looking for a detailed response to each question. The response paper is to be a minimum of 1,500 words (not including quotes) and must be written as a single essay and not just a list of answers to questions. The basis for your answers must primarily come from the resources provided in the lessons covering the philosophy of religion unit of the course (Evans and Manis, Craig, and the presentation) and these sources must be mentioned in your paper. You are not merely to quote these sources as an answer to the question—answer them in your own words. You may use other outside sources as well, as long as you properly document them. However, outside sources are not necessary. Each of the questions can be answered from the sources provided in the lessons. While the use of the Bible is not restricted, its use is not necessary and is discouraged unless you intend to explain the context of the passage and how that context applies to the issue at hand in accordance with the guidelines provided earlier in the course. You are not to merely quote scripture passages as answers to the questions. Remember this is a philosophical essay not a biblical or theological essay. While you may quote from sources, all quotations must be properly cited and quotes from sources will not count towards the 1,500 word count of the paper. You may be critical of McCloskey, but must remain respectful. Any disparaging comment(s) about McCloskey will result in a significant reduction in grade. Please note that this paper will be submitted through SafeAssign, which is a plagiarism detection program. The program is a database of previously submitted papers including copies of papers that have been located on the Internet. Once submitted, your paper will become part of the database as well. The program detects not only exact wording but similar wording. This means that if you plagiarize,it is very likely that it will be discovered. Plagiarism will result in a 0for the paper and the likelihood of you being dropped from the course. Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW

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Note: In order to fulfill this assignment you need to have read the Star Trek synopsis and/or episode found in the Reading & Study folder along with chapter 3 of the Hasker text. You also need to have viewed the video presentation “The Mind/Body Problem” and the PointeCast presentation “Proposed Solutions to the Mind/Body Problem.” If you have not done so, stop now and read that material.   Science fiction literature often raises philosophical issues and is a great source for philosophical speculation. This is especially true for the mind/body problem. For example, it is common in science fiction literature to encounter androids. An android is a robot which resembles a human being in appearance and behavior. Examples of androids in science fiction books, television programs, or films are numerous (Star Trek, Star Wars, Aliens, Terminator, A.I., I, Robot, etc.). In reality, many computer scientists are currently working in the area of “artificial intelligence” or machines that can “think for themselves.” Many computer scientists believe this is the first step in creating these androids of the future and that in time the distinction between man and machine will be practically erased. These scientists speculate that androids with super-computer brains will have thoughts, beliefs, feelings, and desires just like humans. Therefore, some argue that they will also have the same rights, responsibilities, and privileges that all humans have and should be treated as thus.   Do you see problems with this view of the future? Do you think machines can ever become persons?   In order to explore this question, let us consider Season 2, Episode 9 or Episode 35 (of total episodes) entitled “The Measure of a Man” from the popular television series, Star Trek: The Next Generation. It would be helpful if you could view this episode (perhaps you can rent it from your local video store or Netflix), but I have provided a synopsis so that you can fulfill this assignment without viewing the episode.   Your thread must address the first question below. You may also address several of the other questions as well, but the bulk of your response must be on the first question and relating the story to Hasker, chapter 3 as well as both the video presentation “The Mind/Body Problem” and the PointeCast presentation “Proposed Solutions to the Mind/Body Problem.”   From your reading of Hasker, and using the categories he uses, what view of the mind/body problem do you think is exhibited by Picard? By Maddox? Support your answer. Maddox lists three criteria for a being to be sentient: intelligence, self-awareness, and consciousness. Are these adequate? Can you think of other properties or characteristics a being needs to have in order to be considered a “person?” What might they be? Do you think that artificial intelligence to the level as it is presented in the story will someday be possible? Why or why not? Do you think Maddox is right when he claims that Picard is being “irrational and emotional” in his view of Data? Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW

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Determinists (Topics 5.2 and 5.3) believe that your genes and your environment (including all factors that influence you up to the present moment) fully determine what you will do in any given situation. Are those the only factors that influence your choices? If there are other factors, what are they? Is there any element of randomness in our choices? If determinism is true, does that mean we do not have free will? Why or why not? Submissions are due on 8/3. Since this is the final week of the course, no peer comments are required. To see the rubric on how submissions will be graded, click on the gear icon above and select “Show Rubrics.” Are you looking for a solution to this question? our writers can offer a custom paper based on these or other instructions. Click the button below to place an order. ORDER PAPER NOW

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