Research Paper Guidelines Paper topics MUST be cleared with the instructor. Topics such as the life of composer X, works of composer X, life and works of composer X, a survey of compositions in a genre (opera, songs, piano, etc.), and other such surveys will not be accepted. You paper must have a narrow focus and be in-depth. Your Research paper is a Quest for Truth, not a platform for opinion. Your paper, however, should have a point of view, but one which is backed up by research and fact, not opinion. You should use a MINIMUM of 8 solid resources (not including scores, recordings, textbooks, etc.). Solid resources include books (beware of books published before 1950, even 1960, as the standards of scholarship were not as strict as they are now), journal articles (scholarly, peer-reviewed journals), and the like. You must assess that quality of the publications that you use. Remember, just because it is published, does not mean it is true. Use databases on the library’s website. You may NOT rely primarily or exclusively on web-only resources. It has been my experience that papers based on web-only resources are typically mediocre to poor. Your resources must be of scholarly merit and quality. You should not make extensive use of opinion pieces, reviews of concerts and recordings, and the like. Articles from databases should be primarily from scholarly journals that are also published as hard copies and/or are peer reviewed. You should NEVER cite Wikipedia. While it can be useful, it is not always reliable, objective or authoritative. To Repeat: YOU MUST USE RESOURCES OTHER THAN THOSE FOUND ONLINE. To Repeat: Wikipedia is NOT an appropriate resource. Like many, even most material that you find online, it is not always authoritative or accurate. However, Wikipedia is often useful with contributions made by scholars and experts. Entries often have good, even excellent bibliographies, references, links and the like. If you find information that you would like to cite in a Wikipedia entry, please find the same material in a more reliable resource and cite that in your paper. PLAGIARISM WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. For a good definition of plagiarism, and how to recognize and avoid it, see: http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml#plagiarized Regarding quotes and paraphrases: This is a research paper, not a series of quotes and/or paraphrases. A collection of quotes and paraphrases strung together, even if properly cited, does not make a good paper. A paraphrase is stating someone else’s ideas in your own words. NOTE: If, when paraphrasing, you are changing only a few words here and there to avoid using quotes, don’t bother, just quote. Even if properly cited, a paraphrase that changes only a few words skirts dangerously close to plagiarism. Quotes should be introduced (e.g. “Stravinsky says:” or “musicologist Keith Potter explains,” etc.) When quoting or citing in the body of the text, introduce quote with the name of the author only. Unless you have a good reason to do otherwise, do NOT cite title of source/resource in the body of the text, as you will include the title of the resource/resource in your footnote. Otherwise, it is redundant and is simply padding and wasting space. All quotes and paraphrases MUST be properly footnoted with the correct citation. You MUST have both footnotes AND a separate bibliography. Biographical and historical information should be limited that that which pertains directly to your thesis/topic. For example, unless you make a case for its pertinence in your paper, do not include information on a composer’s childhood, musical training, and the like. Synopses/descriptions of opera/song cycles scenarios, programs behind tone poems, program symphonies, and the like, should be kept brief and included only as they advance your thesis/topic. Proper academic writing style and formatting will be considered in determining the final grade. In addition to the paper’s content, spelling, grammar, syntax, formatting, style all matter and will be considered in determining the final grade. I require a hard copy of your paper (do not submit papers in folder; simply staple in upper left corner) + you MUST upload your paper into Turninit through iLearn. Before you submit a hard copy of your final draft, you can take a look at the Turnitin report and if it indicates that you have not properly cited passages that your are quoting, paraphrasing or re-wording, you should re-work you draft to include proper citation. I can delete the draft and then you can upload your final draft. As a precaution, you should also send an email with your paper as an attachement to me at firstname.lastname@example.org. Style Guide: The style and format required is that of The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th or 16th edition. You do not have to purchase this style manual; instead you may look online for the basic format. Kate Turabian’s book, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th edition which is based on the 15th edition of Chicago, but much cheaper. Please do NOT use the MLA style of formatting footnotes (i.e. page number and author in parentheses in the body of the text). Papers should NOT be broken down into chapters, but if necessary, headings for sections may be included, though discouraged. There should not be too many such headings. For a good paper you gather quality research materials, read and internalize them, synthesize them and write YOUR paper. Length: No. of pages required is exclusive of score fragments, illustrations, extensive footnotes, etc. Good writing is characterized by the following: 1. It is Concise. Not necessarily brief, but writing should not have any excess. 2. It is Precise. Say what you mean and mean what you say. This is often rather more difficult than you might think. Words, phrasing, syntax yield precise meaning. E.g. simple and simplistic are not synonyms. In and within are not synonyms. 3. It has a flair. I should want to read the next sentence. This does NOT mean that you should affect an erudite tone. It should be sophisticated, but authentic. Neither should it read like prose as found in fiction or journalism. 4. It does not raise questions on the reader’s part that are not answered. The first line of each paragraph is indented 1/2-inch or 1 tab (set tabs at 1/2-inch intervals) Double space throughout except for block quotes and footnotes which should be single spaced. Do NOT add extra spaces between paragraphs, i.e. the spacing between paragraphs should be the same as the spacing of lines within a paragraph. EVERYTHING MUST BE IN 12-POINT FONT, including footnotes and quotations. Font style should be “normal,” not too small, not too large. I suggest Times New Roman or Times. No Bold font. Margins: 1 1/4 to 1 1/2-inch margin on left, 1 to 1 1/4-inch margin on the right, and 1-inch margin on top and bottom. Change the defaults on your word processor if necessary. Paginate entire paper, including bibliography. Pagination should be outside of the margins. The first line of text on the first page should be at the very top of the page. Do not over punctuate. Usually, there is little or no reason for dashes. Italics should be used sparingly and properly. If you must use italics or quotation marks to highlight a word you should do so sparingly. Generally speaking, use italics for unique titles of large-scale works (e.g. Symphonie fantastique), books and journal titles. Quotation marks are used for small works (character pieces, songs, and the like) and movements with unique titles (e.g. “Gretchen am Spinnrade,” and “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath”), chapter titles, titles of journal articles. The are quotation marks or italics, only upper case letter, for generic titles (e.g. Symphony No. 5). Quotes longer than 3 lines should be in the so-called block quote format, that is indented 1/2-inch from the left margin and single spaced. The block quote should not haves quotation marks at the beginning and end. Of course, the quote must be footnoted. You must include properly formatted footnotes (using the format of the Chicago Manual of Style, NOT the MLA style). Footnote entries are single spaced. Once you fully cite a resource or source, subsequent footnote citations of the same item should be in the short citation format (typically last name of author or authors, short title of book, article, etc., and page number). Please use footnotes, not endnotes. The first line of a footnote is indented. The remaining lines of each individual footnote are not indented. You must include a separate, properly formatted bibliography. The bibliography begins on a separate page, not the last page of the text. The first line of a bibliography is at the left margin. The remaining lines are indented 1/2 inch. Double space throughout the bibliography with no extra spaces between entries. If music examples, figures, illustrations, plates, etc. are to be used, you must label and format them properly Pet peeves: Capitalization must be correct. Words such as jazz, opera, rock and roll, fugue, etc. should not be capitalized. Typically only titles and proper nouns are capitalized. “ is a quotation mark ‘ is an apostrophe, NOT a quotation mark, unless you have a quote within a quote, in which case you use ‘ as the interior quotation mark. Date compositions/works. Too often, time frame is unclear, so supply dates for compositions and other works. DO NOT submit paper in a folder. Simply staple in the upper left corner. Other pet peeves, not as crucial, but still annoying: Check on capitalization of foreign titles. Do not use contractions Numbers 100 and less should be spelled out, e.g. twenty-one, not 21 or nineteenth century, not 19th century, except for page numbers and measure numbers. All punctuation except colons and semi-colons fall within quotation marks.